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Jehovah’s Witnesses claim there will only be 144,000 people in Heaven. They base this belief on Revelation 7  and Revelation 14 in which the 144,000 are mentioned.

A cursory reading of Revelation 7 quickly shows that there is an additional multitude of people to the 144,000 described there as worshiping before the throne of God. The Jehovah’s Witnesses describe this second group as The Earthly Class or Great Crowd which is an additional group of people, also all Jehovah’s Witnesses, who throughout eternity live in a perfect paradise on Earth, but who do not actually go to Heaven and who never have any personal contact or experience with God during that eternity.

Misplaced Literalism

The Jehovah’s Witnesses are quite mistaken to think that Heaven is limited to 144,000 individuals. If one takes the number of 144.000 to be a literal number then one is obliged to take all the information about the 144,000 literally. In doing so we find that that the 144,000

  • Are Jews
  • Number precisely 12,000 each from 12 specified tribes of Israel (but not all the tribes – the tribe of Dan is missing)
  • Have the Lamb’s Name and The Father’s Name written on their foreheads
  • Are male
  • Are virgins
  • Follow The Lamb wherever He goes

Taking this passage literally we find that the only people who are in Heaven are male, Jewish virgins. How many Jehovah’s Witnesses meet this criteria ?

In addition to being male, Jewish virgins, everyone in heaven has two names literally written on their foreheads and follow The Lamb wherever He goes all the time. Surely this is somewhat inconvenient  for both Jesus and for the 144,000, stumbling over each other for all eternity.

So we can easily see that taking a literal view of the 144,000 creates insurmountable problems with the text.

144,000 As Symbolic

The number 144,000 has a suspiciously symbolic look to it, being 12 x 12 x 1,000 with the numbers 12 and 1,000 both being highly significant Biblically.

The structure of the number 144,000 denotes completeness. Firstly, the 12 Tribes are multiplied by 12, meaning that the ‘twelve-ness’ of elect Israel is emphasised. None of the twelve Tribes of Israel are missing from Heaven. The subsequent multiplication by 1,000 is an intensifier signifying great magnitude. The total symbolism simply means all the elect of Israel will surely be saved and that there will be a very large number of them.

The magnitude of 1,000 is present in both the overall count of all elect Israel (144 x 1,000) and in the count by each individual tribe e.g For Judah 12,000 are present (12 x 1,000). This indicates that the salvation of Israel is both complete and in great magnitude by tribe as well as by nation. All of Israel is present, all of Israel is present in great magnitude and each individual tribe of Israel is present and fully accounted for in great magnitude, saved by their covenant Lord who promised to do so. All are present who should be present. None are missing who should not be missing.

To give just one example of the symbolic use of 1,000 in scripture consider Psalms 50:10 in which we read – “For every beast of the forest is mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills.” As the Blog Scripture Revealed notes:

Now don’t you think there are more than a thousand hills on earth? Is the passage implying that God does not own the cattle on hill one thousand and one? Of course not. What is being conveyed is that the Lord owns all the cattle on all the hills, not just on a thousand hills

As Scripture Revealed goes on to say :The number one thousand (1,000) symbolizes “immensity,” “fullness of quantity” or “multitude.” It then provides numerous examples of this application in Scripture.

The number 144,000 applied to Israel is a symbolic way of saying that none of Israel whom God intends to save will be missing.

First Fruits

A further aspect of the 144,000 in Revelation 14, is that the 144,000 are a first fruits, which means that they are representative of a larger group. The identification of the 144,000 as a First fruits is of itself proof that more than 144,000 are in Heaven. And this is precisely what we find in Revelation 7 where we see that in addition to the 144,000 there is  a great multitude that no one could count, from every nation, tribe, people and language, standing before the throne and before the Lamb. They were wearing white robes and were holding palm branches in their hands.

The description of the great crowd as being  from every nation, tribe, people and language shows that they are Gentiles. The Jewish saved are a firstfruits of the total saved population of humanity. So we see in Revelation 7 that there are two basic groups of people worshiping before God’s Throne: Jews and Gentiles

144,000 – The Fulfillment Of God’s Promises To Israel

The 144,000 of Revelation 7 show that God will be faithful in his promises to Israel to save them, thus honouring the covenant he made to Abraham and confirmed with Isaac and Jacob.

The Apostle Paul describes it this way in Romans 11: that Israel will certainly all be saved once God has completed His mercy among the Gentiles but that Israel is currently experiencing God’s judgement at present – a breaking off from Christ and a hardening of their hearts. But Israel indeed will be saved and restored due to God’s faithfulness. And this is what we see described in Revelation 7: Jews and Gentiles alike worshiping God in Heaven.

Revelation 7 does not show two classes of saved as Jehovah’s Witnesses would say, one of which, the 144,000, is supposedly superior to the other, The Great Crowd. No. Rather the passage describes two multitudes of people in heaven: one Jewish and one Gentile – the same groups that Paul describes in Romans 11.

Genre

The basic error that Jehovah’s Witnesses have made is to apply a literal interpretation to a passage which is intended to be understood symbolically. They have failed to recognise Genre. The Book Of Revelation is written in a Genre known as Apocalypse in the same way that Psalms is written in a genre known as Poetry and the Pastoral Letters in a genre known as Epistle. Epistle being pastoral letters should be interpreted literally. Poetry and Apocalypse, on the other hand, are figurative genres. To select arbitrary elements from symbolic texts and interpret them literally is an invitation to poor interpretation.

Why Specify ?

It may be reasonably asked if two multitudes are present in Revelation 7, then why specify only one of them using a symbolic number ? Isn’t this proof that the use of the specific number 144,000 is to be taken literally ? Indeed, Jehovah’s Witnesses take this very line of argument.

The question is reasonable and I think a partial answer to this is that Gentiles are not numbered by tribes in The Bible whereas Israel is so numbered. Thus, The Holy Spirit, in His inspiration of scripture can individually list the Israelite tribes and number them as a way of indicating The Lord’s individual care and oversight of all Israel and His commitment to save them. It also allows The Holy Spirit to omit Dan in such a list which leads to interesting speculation of why this might be the case.

A similar specific listing of Gentile nation, tribe, people and languages would obviously require thousands of pages to render fully and so is not done. Having said this, the symbolic number 10,000 or 10,000 times 10,000 used in other parts of Scripture might indicate the greatness and diversity of the Gentile multitude, so I agree there is no compelling reason why a symbolic could not be used for them also.

While this could be cited as a reason to indicate that the 144,000 should be taken as a literal number, we have seen that doing so creates insurmountable problems with interpreting the text. Specifically, the 144,000 are all male, Jewish, virgins. Are we really to believe that only male, Jewish, virgins will go to heaven ?

How many Jehovah’s Witnesses fit this category ?

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The Mormon Church claims to be a Christian Church. In this post I will use Biblical criteria to evaluate Mormon teaching and practices. We will see that the Mormon Church is not Christian.

The table below compares key Mormon beliefs with Biblical criteria for a false gospel. We can see that Mormonism is clearly a false gospel and is Satanically inspired.

In Satan’s first interaction with humanity, he did two things: Firstly, Satan caused Adam and Eve to doubt and reject the Word Of God and instead embrace his own false teachings. Secondly, the incentive Satan provided to Adam and Eve to reject God’s Word was the promise from Satan that they would become Gods.

Mormonism precisely emulates the teaching of Satan. Mormon teachings cast doubt on and ultimately reject  The Bible in order to replace God’s Word with false Mormon teaching and the false promise that human beings can become Gods.

The Mormon church is a direct and obvious replay of Satan’s first deception of humanity. The Modus Operandum of Satan is clearly present in Mormonism.

False Gospel Mormon Church Notes
Satan casts doubt on and contradicts the Word of God Bible doubted and contradicted.

Mormon church teaches that The Bible is only true insofar as it is correctly translated, the practical meaning being that The Bible is only true insofar as it agrees with Mormonism.

Mormon Church  teaches that The Bible is incomplete, and so introduces new, false doctrines which are contradictory to The Bible via the Book Of Mormon

Therefore, in practice, Mormonism teaches that The Bible is no longer the Word of God and invites a transfer of trust to the Mormon church and its false doctrines.

Genesis 3:1 The serpent…said to the woman, “Did God really say…’ (doubt)

Genesis 3:2-5 The woman said to the serpent, God did say, ‘You must not eat fruit from the tree … or you will die.’”

You will not.. ,”  the serpent said to the woman [1]For God knows [2] that when you eat of it…you will be like God…[3]

[1] Satan contradicts the Word of God

[2] Satan casts doubt on God’s character implying God has given them an incomplete Word,

[3] Satan uses the groundwork of doubt and contradiction of God’s Word to introduce false doctrine and a transfer of trust from God to Satan

Satan tells Humanity than they can be like God Mormon doctrine of Exaltation says that Humans can become like Gods and indeed become Gods Genesis 3:2-5   Satan tells Adam and Eve that they can be like God.

From the above we can clearly see the Satanic inspiration and methods present in Mormonism.

The following table shows that Mormonism bears the other hallmarks of a false gospel and false church.

False Gospel Mormon Church Notes
Satan appears as Angel of Light Mormon teaching sourced in Revelations of Angels of Light

Joseph’s Smith’s First Vision described by Mormons as the  foundation of church;

Smith experienced a huge number of Angelic visitations receiving false doctrines from them

2 Corinthians 11:13-14

“For such people are false apostles, deceitful workers, masquerading as apostles of Christ. And no wonder, for Satan himself masquerades as an angel of light.”

False Apostles preach a Different Jesus Mormon church teaches that Jesus is the brother of Lucifer Bible teaches that Jesus is the creator of Lucifer and indeed the entire Universe.

Colossians 1:15-17 

16 For in him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things have been created through him and for him.

False Apostles boast about their Visions Smith was constantly relating his visions and describing their clarity.

These visions became the doctrine of the Mormon Church.

Smith remarked late in his life, “It is my meditation all the day & more than my meat & drink to know how I shall make the saints of God to comprehend the visions that roll like an overflowing surge, before my mind”

Colossians 2:18

Do not let anyone who delights in false humility and the worship of angels disqualify you. Such a person also goes into great detail about what they have seen; they are puffed up with idle notions by their unspiritual mind.

2 Corinthians 11:17-18 – 12:1

False Apostles boast they are better than Biblical Apostles Joseph Smith said he was superior to Paul, Peter, John, indeed all men that ever lived, and even in one important respect superior to Jesus

“I have more to boast of than ever any man had. I am the only man that has ever been able to keep a whole church together since the days of Adam…Neither Paul, John, nor Jesus ever did it. I boast that no man ever did such a work as I. The followers of Jesus ran away from Him; but the Latter-day Saints never ran away from me yet.” (Church History vol 6, pp. 408-409).

Incredibly, Mormons also believe that Smith taught that no-one may now enter heaven without the permission of Joseph Smith.

no man or woman in this dispensation will ever enter into the celestial kingdom of God without the consent of Joseph Smith. From the day that the Priesthood was taken from the earth to the winding-up scene of all things, every man and woman must have the certificate of Joseph Smith, junior, as a passport to their entrance into the mansion where God and Christ are

2 Corinthians chapters 10,11 and 12 describe the boastful character of False Apostles: they boast of their geneology, their sufferings, their devotion to Jesus, their proficiency at public speaking, their visions and revelations and how they are superior to the true Apostles of Jesus.
Interaction With The Dead Completely Forbidden Mormon church practices Baptism For The Dead

Mormon publications encourage children to welcome visitations from the dead

Mormon church teaches that dead ancestors assist and communicate with the living.

Mormon church teaches that visits of the deceased may come to you and speak with you, for example to request baptism.

Appearances of deceased spirits in the Mormon Temple are expectedwelcomed , encouraged and celebrated.

Fourth Mormon Prophet Wilford Woodruff told followers in 1887, “The dead will be after you, they will seek after you as they have after us[ in the Mormon Temple in St. George, Utah] (Journal of Discourses 19:229).

Bible teaches that communication with the dead is a spiritually defiling practice that should be strictly avoided.

Anyone who enabled communication with the dead was punished by stoning and faced God’s personal, immediate and certain wrath 

It is amazing then, that Mormon sources teach that their venerated leaders communicated with dead people and performed wishes according to their actions.

The gladness  that Mormons describe when encountering the spirits of the deceased and the welcome afforded to them in their religious ceremonies is in complete opposition to Biblical teaching.

Divination Forbidden Joseph Smith translated Book Of Mormon using Divination and, according to Mormon sources, Smith and his family were steeped in the practice of divination at the time Smith was visited by the False Angels in the so-called First Vision Divination is a “foretelling future events, or discovering things secret by the aid of superior beings, or other than human means.”

Deuteronomy 18:10-11

Let no one be found among you who sacrifices their son or daughter in the fire, who practices divination or sorcery, interprets omens, engages in witchcraft,  or casts spells, or who is a medium or spiritist or who consults the dead.

Hosea 4:12

My people consult a wooden idol,
    and a diviner’s rod speaks to them.
A spirit of prostitution leads them astray;
    they are unfaithful to their God.

(Divination rods quoted approvingly by Mormon Sources)

Secret Doctrines A Feature Of False Gospel Mormonism has secret worship rituals and secret knowledge The Bible associates secret ways with the ungodly and openness with the godly.

All Old Testament Temple rituals were publicly known and described. Mormon Temple rites are kept secret

2 Corinthians 4:1-2 

Therefore, since through God’s mercy we have this ministry, we do not lose heart. Rather, we have renounced secret and shameful ways… On the contrary, by setting forth the truth plainly we commend ourselves to everyone’s conscience in the sight of God.

Jesus’ Death On The Cross Is Unimportant Mormonism says Jesus’ atonement occurred in the Garden of Gethsemene,
not on the cross.On page fourteen of his book, “Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson,” the thirteenth president of the LDS Church stated it was in the Garden of Gethsemane that Christ “suffered as only as God would suffer, bearing our griefs, carrying our sorrows, being wounded for our transgressions, voluntarily submitting Himself to the iniquity of us all.Benson further stated  “It was in Gethsemane that Jesus took on Himself the sins of the world, in Gethsemane that His pain was equivalent to the cumulative burden of all men, in Gethsemane that He descended below all things so that all could repent and come to Him”(Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson, pg.15).In his book “The Promised Messiah,”Mormon Apostle Bruce R. McConkie wrote, “Forgiveness is available because Christ the Lord sweat great drops of blood in Gethsemane as he bore the incalculable weight of the sins of all who ever had or ever would repent” (pg. 337).

On page 552 of the same book McConkie continues by saying, “In a garden called Gethsemane, outside Jerusalem’s walls, in agony beyond compare, he took upon himself the sins of all men on condition of repentance.”

On pages 127-128 of McConkie’s “The Mortal Messiah,” he wrote, “And as he came out of the Garden, delivering himself voluntarily into the hands of wicked men, the victory had been won. There remained yet the shame and the pain of his attest, his trials, and his cross. But all these were overshadowed by the agonies and sufferings in Gethsemane.

It was on the cross that he ‘suffered death in the flesh,’ even as many have suffered agonizing deaths, but it was in Gethsemane that “he suffered the pain of all men, that all men might repent and come unto him.”

The Bible summarizes the true gospel as ‘the message of the cross’

1 Corinthians 1:18

“For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God.”

Further Information

This section provides additional detail on the tables above.

Mormon Church Rejects The Bible

Mormons strenuously object to claims that they reject The Bible, often stating that they study The Bible as much as or more than The Book Of Mormon.

While Mormons do indeed read The Bible, they do so through the lens of Mormonism. The Bible is understood only via Mormon pre-suppositions. Mormons do not let The Bible stand alone or speak for itself.

As an example of Mormon rejection of The Bible, the following is taken from an essay by an influential early Mormon leader, Orson Pratt, one of the Twelve original so-called Apostles of Mormonism. Pratt states that The Bible is hopelessly corrupted and therefore useless.

DIVINE AUTHENTICITY OF THE BOOK OF MORMON, NUMBER 3

By Orson Pratt

One of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

THE BIBLE AND TRADITION, WITHOUT FURTHER REVELATION, AN INSUFFICIENT GUIDE

who, in his right mind, could, for one moment, suppose the Bible in its present form to be a perfect guide? Who knows that even one verse of the whole Bible has escaped pollution, so as to convey the same sense now that it did in the original? Who knows how many important doctrines and ordinances necessary to salvation may be buried in oblivion in some of the lost books? Who knows that even the ordinances and doctrine that seem to be set forth in the present English Bible, are anything like the original?

Pratt’s attitude to The Bible is clear: it is corrupted and unreliable, INSUFFICIENT, unfit to be followed by itself. That’s where, of course, The Book Of Mormon, like Satan comes in:  to supposedly clarify and in practice supplant the supposedly insufficient and unreliable Word Of God

Official Mormon publications make it clear that The Bible is subordinated to The Book Of Mormom. Here is an excerpt from the current Offical Mormon Encyclopedia which is maintained by the Mormon Brigham Young University.

The Latter-day Saint use of the Bible differs from the Judeo-Christian norm because it is not the sole LDS source of authority (see Scriptures: Authority of Scripture). The Bible is interpreted and understood by Latter-day Saints through four important means: (1) other LDS scriptures, which enrich and give perspective to an understanding of biblical teachings; (2) statements of modern prophets…

IS THE BIBLE COMPLETE?

Latter-day Saints revere the Bible as the word of God revealed to humankind. However, Joseph Smith recognized that translations do not reflect totally and exactly the original words and intentions of the ancient prophets and other biblical writers.

Latter-day Saints accept rather explicitly what the Bible now says, they realize that more is to be accounted for than is available in the extant biblical record.

In addition … [Mormon] scriptures also declare that some parts of the original biblical text have been lost or corrupted …Joseph Smith commented on the Bible’s incompleteness: “It was apparent that many important points touching the salvation of men, had been taken from the Bible, or lost before it was compiled” (TPJS, pp. 10-11).

He later said, “Much instruction has been given to man since the beginning which we do not possess now…. We have what we have, and the Bible contains what it does contain” (TPJS, p. 61).

The Prophet Joseph further stated, “I believe the Bible as it read when it came from the pen of the original writers. Ignorant translators, careless transcribers, or designing and corrupt priests have committed many errors” (TPJS, p. 327).

Thus, the elements of mistranslation, incompleteness, and other errors weaken the Bible… Latter-day Saints… revere the Bible, especially in the context of [Mormon] scriptures… which have much to say about the Bible and how it is to be interpreted,

Mormons will tell you that you can know that Mormonism is the true Christian Church by just praying to God and asking Him. At that time, they say, you will experience a burning sensation in the chest accompanied by feelings of peace which they call the Burning Bosom. This, say Mormons, is proof that the Mormon Church is the true Christian Church and the true church of God. Here is an LDS member saying so on the official LDS website.

This is despite the fact that Joseph Smith himself said he had made incorrect decisions based on such a Burning Bosom experience and the senior leader Boyd K. Packer in the 1983 LDS Ensign magazine in an article titled “Candle of the Lord” admitting that relying on the Burning Bosom can easily lead to following Satan or one’s own emotional impulse. Packer wrote as as follows:

Be ever on guard lest you be deceived by inspiration from an unworthy source. You can be given false spiritual messages. There are counterfeit spirits just as there are counterfeit angels. Be careful lest you be deceived, for the devil may come disguised as an angel of light.

The spiritual part of us and the emotional part of us are so closely linked that it is possible to mistake an emotional impulse for something spiritual. We occasionally find people who receive what they assume to be spiritual promptings from God, when those promptings are either centered in the emotions or are from the adversary.

Boyd K. Packer, “The Candle of the Lord,” Ensign, January 1983. Mr. Packer in his address offered no way to discern between the emotional, Satanic and Godly witnesses.

To assist Mr. Packer, the best way to discern between the Godly, Satanic and emotional impulses is to evaluate your proposed course of action against The Bible. Because The Bible was produced by The Holy Spirit, any advice from the Holy Spirit will never contradict The Bible because The Holy Spirit will never contradict Himself.

In my opinion it is very easy to tell that the Mormon Church is not a Christian church. And that is because in the First Vision of Joseph Smith in which he received his first messages from the spirit world he was told to reject all the Christian Churches and all Christian belief.

Later accounts say that when the personages appeared, Smith asked them “O Lord, what church shall I join?”[10] or “Must I join the Methodist Church?”[27] In answer, he was told that “all religious denominations were believing in incorrect doctrines, and that none of them was acknowledged of God as his church and kingdom.”[30] All churches and their professors were “corrupt”,[31] and “all their creeds were an abomination in [God’s] sight.”[15]

Here then is the basis of Mormonism: Reject all Christian Churches and all Christian belief. Would that message come from Jesus ?

Existing Christian belief would be replaced with a message which would later be given to Smith. This became The Book Of Mormon and associated other Mormon teachings.

The ninth president of the Mormon Church, David O. McKay, said that “the appearing of the Father and the Son to Joseph Smith is the foundation of the Church.” (Gospel Ideals, p. 85).

Given the foundation of Mormonism, it is easy to see that the Mormon Church is not Christian, but Anti-Christian.

Mormonism was Satan’s attempt to replace American Christianity with a counterfeit. Joseph Smith lived in an area which was in the peak of a major Christian revival. Mormonism was Satan’s attempt to undermine that revival and distract Americans from following the true Jesus.

Add to this the Satanic nature of Mormon’s core message – which is that Humans can become Gods by following Mormonism – plus the consideration that its major spiritual practice, Baptism for the Dead, is a means of occult interaction with the deceased – and I think it is clear that Mormonism is exposed as a Satanic enterprise.

I am afraid that just as Eve was deceived by the serpent’s cunning, your minds may somehow be led astray from your sincere and pure devotion to Christ. For if someone comes to you and preaches a Jesus other than the Jesus we preached, or if you receive a different spirit from the Spirit you received, or a different gospel from the one you accepted, you put up with it easily enough.it…. And no wonder, for Satan himself masquerades as an angel of light. (2 Corinthians 11:3-14)

I am astonished that you are so quickly deserting the one who called you to live in the grace of Christ and are turning to a different gospelwhich is really no gospel at all. Evidently some people are throwing you into confusion and are trying to pervert the gospel of Christ. But even if we or an angel from heaven should preach a gospel other than the one we preached to you, let them be under God’s curse! As we have already said, so now I say again: If anybody is preaching to you a gospel other than what you accepted, let them be under God’s curse! (Galatians 1:6-9)

A few weeks ago I had a chat with a neighbour who is a Mormon who kindly gave me a bit of a run-down on the Mormon faith. I made some notes on our conversation

The reasons my neighbour gave to become a Mormon were that Traditional Christianity has splintered into a number of sects; only the Mormon church has a living prophet; your dead ancestors can get go to heaven and that the Bible has been changed and corrupted whereas the Book Of Mormon has not.

I’ll give a brief response to each reason to become a Mormon first, then a more detailed response below.

Brief Response

  1. Traditional Christianity Has Splintered Into Dozens Of Competing Sects

 

You mentioned that traditional Christianity has splintered into dozens of competing sects whereas the Mormon Church has remained one church. The continuity of Mormonism as a single church with a single doctrine proves that it is the true Christian Church.

Unfortunately Mormonism has also splintered into dozens of competing sects.

Wikipedia currently lists 86 Mormon sects. (Google Article List Of Denominations In The Latter-Day Saints Movement).

If traditional Christianity is discredited and unreliable because of the proliferation of sects then so is Mormonism and there is no reason to become a Mormon.

  1. Only The Mormon Church Has A Living Prophet

You said that one of the great benefits of being a Mormon is that the Mormon Church has a living prophet to provide leadership, revelation and guidance to the church. The current living Mormon prophet is apparently Thomas Monson who was born in 1927.

Unfortunately for Mormons and for Thomas Monson, the Church of Jesus Christ already has a living and eternal prophet and that person is not a Mormon. 

The living prophet of the Church Of Jesus Christ is Jesus Christ. The Bible clearly explains that Jesus is the High Priest of His church, and that He has this position forever because He has an indestructible life. Quite obviously, Jesus is alive. Since Jesus is alive there is no need for any successor to Him and indeed there can never be any successor to Jesus.

 

Since Christians already have an eternally living and perfect High Priest and Prophet, namely Jesus Christ Himself, there is no reason to accept any other High Priest or Prophet and therefore no reason to become Mormon. 

 

3. Dead Ancestors Can Get Saved

You indicated that a big benefit of becoming a Mormon is that my dead ancestors can get saved by actions I can perform on their behalf, such as being Baptised for The Dead.

Unfortunately, it is not possible to get Baptised for The Dead. The Bible is clear that people are judged for their own works and do not gain any benefit from the works of others and also that there is no hope for salvation after death if that person has refused salvation prior to death.

Given this, Baptism for the Dead does not provide any incentive to become a Mormon, and is in fact a disincentive to become a Mormon, as it violates the teaching of Jesus as found in The Bible.

In fact, the Bible’s clear overall teaching is to deter believers from having any interaction or interest in the dead at all and in fact to avoid any interactions with them at all. Baptism for the Dead violates the boundaries that God has set up for our protection from harmful interaction with the Spirit World.

4. The Bible Has Become Corrupted

You mentioned that there are many different Bibles and therefore no-one can be really sure which Bible is the real one whereas the Book Of Mormon has remained the same ever since it was written and will never change. The unchanging nature of the Book Of Mormon proves that Mormonism is the true Christian Church.

Unfortunately the Book Of Mormon has indeed changed over time. Even Mormon websites acknowledge this, simply noting that the changes are merely clarifications and do not affect Mormon doctrine. See For example Fair Mormon here

Since the Book Of Mormon exhibits minor changes in different editions, it is no different to The Bible which also exhibits minor changes in different editions. Hence The Book Of Mormon does not exhibit any special textual constancy and therefore does not provide any compelling reason to become a Mormon.

Detailed Response

  1. Traditional Christianity Has Splintered Into Dozens Of Competing Sects

You mentioned that traditional Christianity has splintered into dozens of competing sects whereas the Mormon Church has remained one church. The continuity of Mormonism as a single church with a single doctrine proves that it is the true Christian Church.

Unfortunately Mormonism has also splintered into dozens of competing sects.

Wikipedia currently lists 86 Mormon sects. (Google Article List Of Denominations In The Latter-Day Saints Movement).

If traditional Christianity is discredited and unreliable because of the proliferation of sects then so is Mormonism and there is no reason to become a Mormon.

  1. Only The Mormon Church Has A Living Prophet

You said that one of the great benefits of being a Mormon is that the Mormon Church has a living prophet to provide leadership, revelation and guidance to the church. The current living Mormon prophet is apparently Thomas Monson who was born in 1927.

Unfortunately for Mormons and for Thomas Monson, the Church of Jesus Christ already has a living and eternal prophet and that person is not a Mormon. 

The living prophet of the Church Of Jesus Christ is Jesus Christ. The Bible clearly explains that Jesus is the High Priest of His church, and that He has this position forever because He has an indestructible life. Quite obviously, Jesus is alive. Since Jesus is alive there is no need for any successor to Him and indeed there can never be any successor to Jesus.

The Bible is also clear that the Church of Jesus Christ has no need for any revelatory prophets following Jesus because Jesus is the perfect revelator of scripture and of God, being the unique Son Of God and God Himself

Furthermore, Jesus is obviously a far better prophet and priest than Thomas Monson because Jesus is God and Thomas Monson isn’t.

Who makes the better prophet and priest  ? God or someone who is not God ?

If you had a choice between having God as your Priest and Prophet or someone else, who would you choose ? I choose Jesus. You can too. Why don’t you ? Why not do it now ?

Since Christians already have an eternally living and perfect High Priest and Prophet, namely Jesus Christ Himself who is God, there is no reason to accept any other High Priest or Prophet and therefore no reason to become Mormon. 

Why should Mormons wish to strip Jesus of his titles as High Priest or His church and final revelatory prophet and award them to someone else ? This is straight-forward blasphemy.

I now invite Mormon readers to renounce the false Mormon prophet and priest and accept the true Prophet and Priest of the Church of Jesus Christ, who is Jesus Christ, in his unique, sole, proper and full authority and Lordship.

The Mormon so-called living prophet cannot meet the needs of the church. I have a continuous daily need for revelation and guidance. This cannot be provided by a human being like Thomas Monson. The Christian Church currently numbers approximately Two Billion people. If Mr. Monson gave each of us a one minute face to face meeting it would take him approximateky 3,805 years to meet each one. If there was an additional 15 second turnover time between each person, then the process would take approximately 4,756 years to complete. I would be long dead before my one minute interview came to pass. Monson cannot give me, or anyone else the continuous guidance, revelation and comfort that we need.

This is why we need Jesus Christ to be our Prophet and High Priest. Since Jesus is God, Jesus is omni-present and can and does dwell personally live with His people. Jesus lives in me and in every believer. Therefore I have access to continuous guidance, revelation, wisdom and comfort from my living Prophet and High Priest, Jesus Christ. Mormons do not get anything remotely like this from Thomas Monson.

Dear Mormon, can you see how you are being ripped off and deprived of spiritual blessings by awarding your devotion to a human being ?

In this linked article, a Mormon explains that the church needs a living prophet because the communion of mankind with God was lost when Adam and Eve sinned. While it is true that the fall of mankind did indeed sever the continuous personal communion of mankind with God, that communion is restored by the Atonement of Jesus Christ.

That is the meaning of atonement – to make peace between feuding parties. Jesus Himself is the peace of mankind. He has reconciled God and humanity together. He is our Priest, our Prophet, our sacrifice, the gift, the Altar and our Atonement. He is our all-in-all. He is our peace with God. Mormonism has deprived you of your spiritual blessings in Jesus by giving you a fake Jesus and a deficient view of the Atonement, to state merely the beginning of the travesty of Mormon belief.

The church of Jesus Christ does indeed need a living prophet. It has one: Jesus.

I invite you now to make the true Jesus Lord of your life and renounce the fake and imposter prophets Jospeph Smith and Thomas Monson along with the false faith of Mormonism.

3. Dead Relatives Can Get Saved and Go To Heaven

You indicated that a big benefit of becoming a Mormon is that my dead ancestors can get saved by actions I can perform on their behalf, such as being Baptised for The Dead.

Unfortunately, it is not possible to get Baptised for The Dead. The Bible is clear that people are judged for their own works and do not gain any benefit from the works of others and also that there is no hope for salvation after death if that person has refused salvation prior to death.

Given this, Baptism for the Dead does not provide any incentive to become a Mormon, and is in fact a disincentive to become a Mormom, as it violates Bible teaching, which is the teaching of Jesus.

The Apostle Paul does indeed reference the pagan practice of people Baptising for the dead, but does not endorse it as a Christian practice. He did the same in Acts 17 when explaining to the pagan Athenians that the Unknown God was actually Jesus.   Paul didn’t worship the Unknown God himself thus endorsing the pagan practice. Rather he used their pagan practice as a bridge to explaining the truth about Jesus who is God who has revealed Himself and made Himself known. Similarly, the pagan practice of Baptism for the Dead is not endorsed, but is used as a bridge this time to under-informed Christians to explain that the Resurrection of Jesus was both real and a bodily resurrection. In a like manner to the Athenian example,  Paul would not himself Baptise for the Dead or endorse this practice.

In fact, the Bible’s clear overall teaching is to deter believers from having any interaction or interest in the dead at all and in fact to avoid any interactions with them at all. Baptism for the Dead violates the boundaries that God has set up for our protection from harmful interaction with the Spirit World.

Mormons frequently interact with the dead during their ceremonies for Baptism for The Dead and it is incredibly disturbing that Mormons encourage their children to expect and welcome visitations from the dead. What more evidence does one need to see that the Mormon church is rife with occult and spiritually defiling practices ? It is obvious that this practice marks Mormonism as a false church established by a false prophet.

4. The Bible Has Become Corrupted

You mentioned that there are many different Bibles and therefore no-one can be really sure which Bible is the real one whereas the Book Of Mormon has remained the same ever since it was written and will never change. The unchanging nature of the Book Of Mormon proves that Mormonism is the true Christian Church.

Unfortunately the Book Of Mormon has indeed changed over time. Even Mormon websites acknowledge this, simply noting that the changes are merely clarifications and do not affect Mormon doctrine. See For example Fair Mormon here

Since the Book Of Mormon exhibits minor changes in different editions, it is no different to The Bible which also exhibits minor changes in different editions. Hence The Book Of Mormon does not exhibit any special textual purity and therefore does not provide any compelling reason to become a Mormon.

The Pearl Of Great Price is another book of Mormon Scripture which has undergone changes, significant changes occurring in 1878, 1900 and 1976. These changes are freely admitted by LDS leaders and members (Google the BYU Masters Thesis An Analysis Of Textual Changes In The Pearl Of Great Price). While fully accepted as a divine work by the major LDS denomination, large parts of Pearl are rejected by various LDS branches, especially the Book Of Abraham.

On the Book Of Abraham, Smith (i.e. Joseph Smith, founder of Mormonism) supposedly translated this from Egyptian papyrus texts in his possession. Professional Egyptologists have inspected Smith’s papyri and find them to be standard Egyptian Funerary texts thus rejecting Smith’s supposed translations  as a blatant fraud. Please compare this to The Bible in which all of its translations from Greek and Hebrew are regarded by impartial professionals as academically honest.

A third Mormon Book Of Scripture Doctrine and Covenants has undergone extensive and continuous revision. Mormon Elder Boyd K. Packer, President of The Quorum Of the so-called Twelve Apostles of the LDS (i.e. Latter-Day Saints, the official term for the Mormon church) from 2008-2015 discussed the changes to  Doctrine And Covenants in a general conference:

Of course there have been changes and corrections. Anyone who has done even limited research knows that. (See the article at Fair Mormon ‘Doctrine and Covenants’).

Mormons accept The King James Version of The Bible as Scripture whilst simultaneously considering it to be corrupted and unreliable. I suspect Mormonism stands as unique in canonising works as Holy and Sacred whilst simultaneously considering them corrupted and unreliable.

Of course, Joseph Smith also produced his own version of The Bible called The Joseph Smith Translation. This is accepted by some, but not all,  LDS branches. The major LDS denomination accepts only some parts of the JST and incorporates those into The Pearl Of Great Price. A somewhat ambiguous view of the JST appears to exist within the main LDS denomination with  Bruce R. McConkie  of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles 1972-1985  saying, “The Joseph Smith Translation, or Inspired Version, is a thousand times over the best Bible now existing on earth”,  yet remaining doctrinally-bound by his church to accept only parts of the JST whilst fully affirming the inferior and more-or-less corrupted King James Version as sacred scripture.(Google Wikipedia article on The Joseph Smith Translation)

In summary, all the LDS Holy Books exhibit changes in their various editions. These changes are freely admitted and endorsed by LDS leadership.. Logically then there is no  reason to become a Mormon based on the supposed unchanging nature of their sacred texts. Because LDS allows its leadership to create, revoke or change scripture at any time the LDS have no requirement for constancy in their sacred scripture, so there is none.

Furthermore, independent experts in Egyptology have cross-checked Smith’s translation of Mormon scriptural sources and consider them to be blatantly fraudulent. Surely no other faith has had to endure such direct embarrassment to their prophetic and scriptural basis.

Because of Smith’s obvious fraud it can be seen that Mormonism is not a true church, it is in fact a false church with a false prophet and is a cult.

Overall, it is plain that the Mormon scriptural basis is hopelessly degraded and provides no incentive for anyone to become a Mormon.

Jesus Has A God, Therefore He Cannot Be God

My material for this post is largely drawn from John Gill’s exposition of John 20:17

In order to prove that Jesus cannot be God, Muslims draw attention to John 20:17 in which Jesus clearly says He has a God.  How, they ask, can God have a God ? Here is John 20:17

Jesus said, “Do not hold on to me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father. Go instead to my brothers and tell them, ‘I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’”

The answer to how Jesus can have a God lies in recognising that Jesus is God in Human form. Jesus was truly human. Being human, Jesus can have a God.

Can God come to Earth if He wants to ? Of course He can.

If God came to Earth could he have flesh and bones and choose to eat and sleep ? Of course He could. Therefore God can come to Earth in human form.

But God would not stop being divine just because He came to Earth in human form. He would still be God. But He would also be a Human who can eat and sleep and do all the things that Humans do.

So if God came to Earth as a human he would retain his divine nature but also have a human nature. He would have two natures during the time He was on Earth: A Divine nature and a Human nature.

Can God Limit Himself ?

God can control Himself in much the same way that I control myself, for example, when I play with my children I choose to limit my strength so that I do not hurt them when I play with them. In a similar way, when Jesus came to Earth he decided to temporarily limit Himself in certain ways. Jesus still had divine attributes but he chose not to use some of them during His time on Earth while He walked with us as a truly human being.

The self-limitation of Jesus does not diminish God because all the Divine Attributes remain fully active in The Father and The Holy Spirit, the other two Divine Persons who share the single Divine Life.

Identification and Dependence

During the period of His earthly life Jesus chose to make Himself dependent on The Father just as all of humanity is dependent on Father God. In this way, Jesus identified with humanity. He became one of us and shared our limitations and dependence on God while yet retaining His divine nature. For this reason of dependence it is possible for Jesus to say that He has a God. Jesus made Himself dependent on The Father, and so like all with a human nature Jesus was dependent on The Father.

Jesus had two natures: a divine nature and a human nature. He retained possession of His divine nature, but chose not to use most of his divine attributes. He lived His life on Earth constrained by the limits of human nature which he took on Himself when he entered His earthly existence.

This does not mean that Jesus never exercised His Divine Attributes or power while on Earth. For example, Jesus healed people and did other miracles by His own power. (See John 5:19, Matthew 8:26-27, Matthew 14:25-32).

The passage in question, John 20:17, thus contains a second reason why it is possible for Jesus to talk about ‘My God and Your God’ and this reason relates to the truth of Jesus’ identification with humanity.

The reality of identification works two ways. Because Jesus shared our humanity, He identifies with us, but humanity also identifies with Jesus. This means that however The Father chooses to treat Jesus in relation to His humanity then you and I obtain the privilege of being treated by The Father in the same way that The Father treats Jesus.

This identification means that since the Father has declared Jesus Not Guilty of sin, then we also can be declared Not Guilty of sin if we identify with Jesus, i.e. choose in faith to accept Jesus as our representative before The Father. Furthermore, because Jesus was resurrected from the grave and from death by The Father, then we also can be, and will be, resurrected from death and the grave (Barzakh) if we choose to identify with Jesus. Again furthermore because Jesus ascends to The Father, those who identify with Jesus and become part of the Umma of Jesus will also obtain the privilege of ascending to heaven with Jesus to be in the presence of The Father.

This truth of humanity’s identification with Jesus, how The Father rewards the Umma of Jesus with the same privileges as Jesus is reported in a truncated form In The Qu’ran Surah Al-Imran:3:55.

“O Jesus, indeed I will take you and raise you to Myself and purify you from those who disbelieve and make those who follow you [in submission to Allah alone] superior to those who disbelieve until the Day of Resurrection.

It was this third aspect of identification, that of Ascension, that  Jesus was specifically referring to in this passage of scripture including John 20:17. Jesus had been declared Not Guilty by The Father after His ordeal on The Cross, consequently had been resurrected from death and the grave and was just about to ascend to The Father.

The woman wanted Jesus to stay behind on earth with them and clung on to Him but Jesus told them something greater was in store for humanity, namely His ascension, which all believers in Him, all His Umma would have the privilege of doing also. But He, Jesus, had to ascend first to make the way for them.

The statement of Jesus ‘I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’” teaches His Umma that His ascension makes our ascension possible because of His identification with humanity and our identification with Him.

Amen! Thanks to be to God an Our Lord Jesus Christ !

So, Jesus statement I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God is indeed, as Muslims state, a clear indication of Jesus’ humanity. This humanity came about because Jesus voluntarily chose to make Himself dependent on The Father (see Phillipians 2:5-8).

The statement my Father and your Father…my God and your God is also a powerful statement of truth regarding Jesus’ identification with humanity, by which humanity can be declared Not Guilty before God and obtain resurrection and ascension, which is entry to Paradise.

The Nature Of God

God exists as three persons who share a single divine life or essence. Since God exists as three persons, one (Jesus) may choose to come to Earth while the others remain in heaven. Additionally, the One who comes to Earth can choose to make Himself dependent on the One(s) who remains in Heaven. In this way, Jesus can truly call The Father His God whilst yet retaining His own divine nature.

The self-limitation of Jesus does not diminish God because all the Divine Attributes remain fully active in The Father and The Holy Spirit, the other two Divine Persons who share the single Divine Life.

Because there is only one Divine Life, God is One.

Today I picked up a book sitting on my friend’s kitchen table. It was a biography of Mohammed entitled ‘The Life Of Mohammed’ by Abdul Ahmed Siddique. You can read the publisher’s note on the book here

Flicking through the pages I chanced upon a bold-face heading on the section devoted to Mohammed’s triumphal military entrance into Mecca. The heading read:

Magnanimity Unparalleled In The Annals Of Mankind

A few lines below was the sub-heading:

Only Four People Were Executed

The people of Mecca must have been glad that they were invaded on a day when Mohammed felt especially and uniquely magnanimous and hence only executed four of them.

Of course, Mohammed’s behaviour in executing ‘only’ four people was not magnanimous but barbarous: especially when one considers that one of those executed was a servant girl named Fartana, executed merely for name-calling and singing satirical songs  directed against Mohammed (see Ibn Hisham, Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq’s Sīrat rasūl Allāh, p. 550)

In executing a mere slave-girl for mere name-calling Mohammed displays not magnanimity, as characterised by the severely deluded Mr. Siddique but psychopathic narcissism.

A Better Example Of Magnanimity

As an example of a person who did indeed display magnanimity at severe personal cost, please consider the example of  Maria Nice  who forgave Alisson Lima dos Santos who murdered her son Rafael da Silva. You can watch the video here

Maria Nice is a Christian who, like uncounted millions of Christians before her, has followed the example of Jesus who forgave those who persecuted, tormented, tortured and killed Him. This is what Maria Nice said to the young man who killed her son.

“You are forgiven in Jesus’ name. I am a Christian, and I am forgiving you, and I will keep praying, Alisson. […] And you are going to discover that God that I serve. […] I don’t have a drop of hate for you, Alisson.

Not Quite So Magnanimous

Once Mohammed’s daughters Fatima and Umm Kulthum were riding on a camel. An enemy of Mohammed named Al-Huwayrith intentionally goaded the camel, causing Mohammed’s daughters to be dangerously thrown to the ground. Mohammed had him killed. (see Ibn Hisham, Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq’s Sīrat rasūl Allāh, p. 551)

You can read here about the young  Saudi Arabian woman, Fatima Al-Mutairi, killed by her Muslim family for simply being a Christian. Like Jesus and Maria Nice, this young woman forgave her enemies in the face of personal suffering and did not execute any one at all.

Dozens more examples of  Christians forgiving enemies who have killed their family members can be found just by Googling Christian forgives murderer’

In this Christians emulate the example of Jesus, the unparalleled magnanimous and mericiful example to humanity who prayed  Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing, even as his enemies were torturing and killing Him on the cross, and who did not order any of them to be executed.

Last year I spent some time discussing The Trinity with my Muslim friend. These are some notes I made from our discussion.

  1. Christians Worship Three Gods

Christians do not believe in three Gods. Christians believe God is One

As Jesus said:

“The most important one (i.e commandment),” answered Jesus, “is this: ‘Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one.[a]

The idea that Christians worship Three Gods is a misconception contained in the Qu’ran in Surah An-Nisa 4:171

O People of the Scripture, do not commit excess in your religion… do not say, “Three”;… Indeed, Allah is but one God.

The Qu’ran incorrectly describes Christian belief. This means that The Qu’ran is in error and hence does not come from God.

2. Jesus Was Born By God Having A Sexual Relationship With Mary

Christians do not believe that Jesus was born by God having a sexual relationship with Mary. Christians believe that Jesus was born by God’s Power acting through The Holy Spirit, in other words by a miracle of God. See Luke 1:31-35 where Gabriel converses with Mary.

You will conceive and give birth to a son, and you are to call him Jesus…

 “How will this be,” Mary asked the angel, “since I am a virgin?”

The angel answered, “The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you…

The idea that Jesus was born by God having a sexual relationship with Mary is a misconception found in The Qu’ran which also states that Christians believe that Mary is a God (see Qu’ran 5:116; 5:75; 6:101) Christians do not believe that Mary is a God.

Once again, The Qu’ran incorrectly describes Christian belief. This means that The Qu’ran is in error and hence does not come from God.

3. Son Of God Is Not a Divine Title

Muslims correctly state that Son Of God is used of several people in the Bible. As well as Jesus the term Son Of God is applied to Adam, Angels and the nation of Israel. Therefore, say Muslims, the Title Son Of God has no special significance and does not mean that Jesus is Divine.

In fact, the Bible teaches that Jesus has a unique kind of Sonship with the Father, which is Divine. In John 3:16 the Bible says;

For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.

The Greek word translated one and only is monogenes which means ‘unique kind’. Jesus said that He had a unique kind of Sonship with God (Matt. 11:27) and the Jews stoned Jesus for Blasphemy when He said he was the Son Of God as he was claiming equality with God. As John 5:18 says:

This was why the Jews were seeking all the more to kill him, because not only was he breaking the Sabbath, but he was even calling God his own Father, making himself equal with God.

For a modern-day equivalent of ‘Son’ being used in different ways between different people, consider a man with two sons, one adopted and one family-born. Both are properly and correctly called Son but they are different kinds of sons.

The Bible uses monogenes to differentiate in a similar way between the Sons of Abraham, Isaac and Ishmael. Isaac is a family-born, natural son, born by Abraham with his wife Sarah, whereas Ishmael is born to Abraham in a different and fractionally more distant family relationship, via Sarah’s maidservant  The Bible calls therefore Isaac monogenes, Abraham’s only son via Sarah, whom Abraham especially loves and who was born through a direct promise by God and conceived miraculously when Abraham was 100 and Sarah 90 years old, well past the normal years of child-bearing or conception.

 Ishmael, born through Sarah’s maidservant Hagar, and neither promised by God, nor conceived miraculously, has a different status in the family. See Hebrews 11:17

By faith Abraham, when God tested him, offered Isaac as a sacrifice. He who had embraced the promises was about to sacrifice his one and only son.

Isaac is called the one and only son (monogenes) even though Abraham had two sons because Isaac is the one and only son born through his wife Sarah.

So, Son Of God is applied to Jesus in a unique way in the Bible, indicating the Divinity of Jesus. Indeed this is the way that the Qu’ran understands the meaning of Son Of God, as a Divine Title (see Qu’ran 5:116)

4. Jesus Did What Only Humans Need To Do

Muslims correctly state that Jesus did what only humans need to do such as eat and sleep. Therefore, Muslims say, Jesus must be human and cannot be Divine.

In fact, the Bible presents two sets of proofs about Jesus:

  1. Jesus is a Human Being
  2. Jesus is Divine

The proofs that Jesus is Divine are many. Among them are these: Jesus forgave sins (Luke 7:48), answers prayer (John 14:13-14), accepts worship (John 9:38-39, John 20:28-29), claims eternal existence (Rev. 1:17-18), claimed to do miracles by His own power (Luke 8:40-46), claims to have ownership and command of God’s Angels (Matt. 25:31), claims to cause resurrection (John 11:25), claims to be Lord of The Holy Day (Luke 6:5), used God’s name as His own name (John 8:58, Exodus 3;14) and directly claimed to be Father God Himself (John 14:6-9).

All these attributes and powers belong to God alone. Since Jesus claimed the rights, name, power and attributes of God, then Jesus has claimed to be God.

5. Three Cannot be One, Therefore The Trinity is Illogical

Muslims correctly state that Three cannot be One. Therefore, Muslims state, the Trinity is illogical as The Father, The Son and The Holy spirit are Three and not One.

Christians do not believe that three can be one. Christians believe that three ones can be one. Expressed mathematically this is:

1 x 1 x 1 = 1

How many ones on the left hand side ? Three

How many ones on the right hand side ? One

Are these expressions equal ? Yes.

So three ones can be one.

Therefore the Trinity is logical.

6. One Thing Cannot be Three Things At Once, Therefore The Trinity Is Illogical

Muslims incorrectly believe that Christians think that one thing can be three things at once. Specifically Muslims state that Christians believe that Jesus is the same as the Father who is the same as The Holy Spirit, since they are all God. Since it is obvious that one thing cannot be three things at once, they say, therefore that the Trinity is illogical.

In fact, Christians believe that Jesus and The Father and The Holy Spirit are NOT the same as each other.

So, in this case the Muslim objection to the Trinity is based on a misunderstanding of what Christians believe about the Trinity.

Christians believe that the Trinity is three distinct persons that share the same Divine Life. This sharing of the Divine Life or Essence is what makes God One. There is only one Divine Life in the Universe. Hence God is One.

When Christians say that Jesus or the Holy Spirit is a person, we don’t mean that they are persons in exactly the same way that Human Beings are, though it is accurate to say that Father, Son and Holy Spirit are Divine Persons. The theological term for person is the Greek work Hypostasis which has the basic meaning of ‘individual reality’ or ‘particular instance of a general type’.

The theological definition of The Trinity is ‘three hypostases in one essence’.

The Father, The Son and The Holy Spirit are One because they share the same Life or Essence.

Muslims will typically assert that this formulation is ridiculous and self-contradictory. How can three distinct things have a shared existence ?

There are many useful analogies of The Trinity in the Universe which can assist us to see that the Trinity is a reasonable and non-contradictory concept.

Molecular Resonance

A strong analogy of The Trinity is provided by the phenonemon of Molecular Resonance.

The basic idea is that Resonating Molecules exist in multiple forms simultaneously, each form having the same Chemical Composition. In other words resonating molecules exists in multiple simultaneous hypostases of the same essence. This is identical in concept to The Trinity.

For example, Nitrate, NO3 has three resonance structures. It exists in all of these forms simultaneously.

As Wikipedia puts it, It is a common misconception that resonance structures are transient states of the molecule, with the molecule oscillating between them or existing as an equilibrium between them. However these individual contributors cannot be observed in the actual resonance-stabilized molecule. The molecule exists in only one form – the resonance hybrid.

In other words, resonating molecules exist in all three forms simultaneously and have exactly the same shared essence.

Here is how Nabeel Qureshi, a former Muslim who converted to Christianity describes how Molecular Resonance overcame his objections to reasonableness of The Trinity. This experience is also described in his book, ‘Seeking Allah, Finding Jesus’

Essentially, the building block of every physical object is an atom, a positively charged nucleus orbited by tiny, negatively charged electrons.  Atoms bond to one another by sharing their electrons, forming a molecule.  Different arrangements of the electrons in certain molecules are called ‘resonance structures.’  Some molecules, like water, have no resonance while others have three resonance structures or more, like the nitrate on the board.

Although the concept was easy enough to grasp, the reality proved to be baffling.  Mrs. Adamski concluded her lesson by commenting, ‘These drawings are just the best way to respresent resonance structures on paper, but it’s actually much more complicated.  Technically, a molecule with resonance is every one of its structures at every point in time, yet no single one of its structures at any point in time…

How could something be many things at once?  Many different things?  We were not talking about the attributes of something like a steak, which can be hot, juicy, thick, and tender all at once.  We were talking about separate spatial and electrical arrangements.  What the professor said would be akin to saying that Nabeel is eating steak in Texas while simultaneously napping in a hammock in the Caribbean.  As wonderful as each would be individually, it made no sense to say I might be doing both at once.

I was perplexed, and what made it even worse was that no one around me seemed bothered in the least.  I looked around the room, agape at their blind acceptance.

But was it really blind?  The professor was teaching rarefied science, describing the subatomic world.  At that level, things happen that make no sense to those of us who conceptualize the world at only a human level.  Even the apparently simply idea of atoms is baffling when we think about it.  It means that the chair I am sitting on is not actually a solid object, innocently supporting my weight.  It is almost entirely empty space, occupied only in small particles moving at incomprehensible speeds.  When we think about it, it seems wrong, but it’s just the way things are in our universe.  There’s no use arguing about it.

I turned my glance away from the other students, concluding they had not blindly accepted a nonsensical concept.  They had just realized before I did that there are truths about our universe that do not fit easily into our minds.

My eyes rested on the three seperate structures of nitrate on the wall, my mind assembling the pieces.  One molecule of nitrate is all three resonance structures all the time and never just one of them.  The three are separate but all the same, and they are one.  They are three in one.

Water

Liquid Water has the chemical  composition H2O.

Solid Water (Ice) also has the chemical composition H2O. In other  words Ice and Water share  the same essence.

Water is a hypostasis of the general essence H2O. Ice is a second hypostasis of the same essence. Gaseous Water (steam) is a third hypostasis of the same essence.

Water, Ice and Steam are not identical, but they have the same essence. They are three hypostases of the identical essence and may be composed of exactly the same identical molecules as anyone who has observed the melting, boiling and condensation of H2O starting from a block of ice can attest.

The analogy of the three Hypostases of Water is not a perfect anology of The Trinity but it demonstrates the basic reasonableness of The Trinity, that there can be three individual and distinct realities that have a shared existence.

Triple Point Of Water

The analogy is improved still further by the phenonemon of The  Triple Point Of Water.

The triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.[1] For example, the triple point of Mercury occurs at a temperature of −38.83440 °C and a pressure of 0.2 mPa.

Very strong points of analogy between The Trinity and The Triple Point Of Water are described as follows. You can read more at this link.

1. Both the Triple Point and the Trinity possess a singular nature with three coequal but distinct hypostases.

The triple point and the trinity both have a singular essence and possess three hypostases which have real distinctions among them.

For example, the three states of water at the triple point are conjoined by a common molecular structure, yet ice, steam, and water are quite different in their physical properties such as density, compressibility, electrical conductivity, et cetera. Because the coexisting phases at the triple point possess a distinctive set of physical properties, the union of one into three occurs without loss of identity of the hypostases 

The Trinity is also a single essence containing three hypostases which are able to merge without loss of identity. There is an infusion of three-into-one in both models.

2. Interdependence Between The Hypostases At The Triple Point Are Closely Analogous To Interdependence In Relationships in the Trinity.

The interdependence of hypostases at the triple point are analogous to the sense of relationship found between members of the trinity. Each hypostasis at triple point derives and sustains its character by mutual collaboration with the other two hypostases.

In other words, thermodynamic hypostases at the triple point cannot exist independently of one another, but are interlocked in a state thermodynamic equilibrium. This symphonic blending is similar to the relations between the persons of the Trinity.

The Trinity is defined by a self-contained mutuality of relations, and no one person of the trinity is or can be without the others. There is a coequal sharing of the singular divine essence without intrinsic subordination of any person.

The undivided essence belongs equally to each of the persons and each possesses all the substance and all the attributes of deity. The same could be said for the triple point phases, as no state of matter is more fundamental than another, nor is water any less itself because it exists in three coincident forms.

Molecular Resonance, The Triple Point and The State Phases Of Water all provide useful analogies of The Trinity which demonstrate that the Trinity is reasonable and without self-contradiction.

7. Jesus Has A God, Therefore He Cannot Be God

My material for this section is largely drawn from John Gill’s exposition of John 20:17

Muslims fairly draw attention to John 20:17 in which Jesus clearly says He has a God in order to prove that Jesus cannot be God. How, they ask, can God have a God ? Here is John 20:17

Jesus said, “Do not hold on to me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father. Go instead to my brothers and tell them, ‘I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’”

The answer lies in recognising that Jesus is God in Human form. Jesus was truly human. Therefore He can have a God.

Can God come to Earth if He wants to ? Of course He can.

If God came to Earth could he have flesh and bones and choose to eat and sleep ? Of course He could.

But God would not stop being divine just because He came to Earth. He would still be God. But he would also be a Human who can eat and sleep and do all the things that Humans do.

God can control Himself in much the same way that I control myself, for example, when I play with my children. When I play with my children I choose to limit my strength so that I do not hurt them when I play with them. In a similar way, when Jesus came to Earth he decided to temporarily limit Himself in certain ways. Jesus still had divine attributes but he chose not to use most of them during His time on Earth while He walked with us as a truly human being.

During the period of His earthly life Jesus chose to make Himself dependent on The Father just as all of humanity is dependent on Father God. In this way, Jesus identified with humanity. He became one of us and shared our limitations and dependence on God while yet retaining His divine nature. For this reason it is possible for Jesus to say that He has a God. Jesus made Himself dependent on The Father.

The passage in question, John 20:17, contains a second reason why it is possible for Jesus to talk about ‘My God and Your God’ and this reason relates to the truth of Jesus’ identification with humanity which we mentioned above.

The reality of identification works two ways. Because Jesus shared our humanity, He identifies with us, but humanity also identifies with Jesus. This means that however The Father chooses to treat Jesus in relation to His humanity then you and I obtain the privilege of being treated by The Father in the same way and The Father treats Jesus.

This identification means that since the Father has declared Jesus Not Guilty of sin, then we also can be declared Not Guilty of sin if we identify with Jesus, i.e. choose in faith to accept Jesus as our representative before The Father. Furthermore, because Jesus was resurrected from the grave and from death by The Father, then we also can be, and will be, resurrected from death and the grave (Barzakh) if we choose to identify with Jesus. Again furthermore because Jesus ascends to The Father, those who identify with Jesus and become part of the Umma of Jesus will also obtain the privilege of ascending to heaven with Jesus to be in the presence of The Father.

This truth of how The Father rewards the Umma of Jesus with the same privileges as Jesus is reported in a truncated form In The Qu’ran Surah Al-Imran:3:55.

“O Jesus, indeed I will take you and raise you to Myself and purify you from those who disbelieve and make those who follow you [in submission to Allah alone] superior to those who disbelieve until the Day of Resurrection.

It was this third aspect of identification, that of Ascension, that  Jesus was specifically referring to in this passage of scripture around John 20:17. Jesus had been declared Not Guilty by The Father after His ordeal on The Cross, consequently had been resurrected from death and the grave and was just about to ascend to The Father.

The woman wanted Jesus to stay behind on earth with them and clung on to Him but Jesus told them something greater was in store, namely His ascension, which all believers in Him, all His Umma would have the privilege of doing also. But He, Jesus, had to ascend first to make the way for them.

The statement of Jesus ‘I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’” teaches His Umma that His ascension makes our ascension possible because of His identification with humanity and our identification with Him.

Amen! Thanks to be to God an Our Lord Jesus Christ !

So, Jesus statement I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God is indeed, as Muslims state, a clear indication of Jesus’ humanity. This humanity came about because Jesus voluntarily chose to make Himself dependent on The Father (see Phillipians 2:5-8).

The statement my Father and your Father…my God and your God is also a powerful statement of truth regarding Jesus’ identification with humanity, by which humanity can be declared Not Guilty before God and obtain resurrection and ascension, which is entry to Paradise.

There is nothing illogical or contradictory about this because God exists as three persons who share a single divine life or essence. Since God exists as three persons, one (Jesus) may choose to go to Earth while the others remain in heaven. Additionally, the One who comes to Earth can choose to make Himself dependent on the One who remains in Heaven. In this way, Jesus can truly call The Father His God whilst yet retaining His own divine nature.

The self-limitation of Jesus does not diminish God because all the Divine Attributes remain fully active in The Father and The Holy Spirit, the other two Divine Persons who share the single Divine Life.

Because there is only one Divine Life, God is One.

Dear Sir,

We met recently while I was visiting friends and talking about Jesus. You said that it would be OK if I left you a short note. You said that there are about 4,200 religions in the world and Google basically agrees with you, though there is significant double-counting with each Christian denomination being counted as a separate religion even though their beliefs are fundamentally identical. You indicated that you had studied a representative number of these religions.

You said that you believe in the Ten Commandments.

Excuse me if I am incorrect, but I understand your basic belief is that all worthwhile religions have a system of moral law and that the core of the moral law of all worthwhile religions is the same. This consistency in the core of the moral law is what validates the moral core as true. In other words we can know what is true by seeing what is common across the worthwhile religions. The moral core of all worthwhile religions is represented by The Ten Commandments.

Hence your basic belief is that all that is required of mankind is that we follow the Ten Commandments, which you do.  Hence you have no further need of any instruction.

Question:  Is something true just because a lot of religions say it is true ? On what basis can a religion be known to be good and worthwhile ? Who decides what is a worthwhile religion ? Is mankind capable of discerning what is true and good ? Does mankind possess a functioning moral consciousness which is able to discern spiritual truth ?

You imply that you have the ability to be able to discern between worthwhile religions and those which are not worthwhile and also to completely or at least satisfactorily follow the teachings of worthwhile religion.

The corollary of the above is that you believe you have a functioning moral consciousness that enables you to both discern and do good, at least to a satisfactory level.

Question: Who decides what is a satisfactory moral performance ? Me ? You ? The local Mullah ? The Pope ? God ? Which God ? A jury of our peers ? Some African people we have never met ? Even allowing for a common moral law, why do people disagree on what is satisfactory  moral performance ? Since people disagree on what is a satatifactory moral performance, how can I know that my own moral performance is acceptable? Are multiple different personal moral standards person-by-person acceptable ? Shouldn’t there be a single objective moral  standard ? How can we know that God will be satisfied with our moral performance ?  Am I qualified to judge myself ? Am I my own God ?

Many people think that a satisfactory moral standard is covered by some subset of the Ten Commandments  –  usually : Don’t lie, Don’t Steal, Don’t Kill and Don’t hurt anyone. Sometimes someone will add Don’t Commit Adultery.

Most Australians seem unaware that we routinely break several of the commandments, namely Don’t worship anyone except Yahweh, the God of The Bible, Don’t misuse the name of God, Don’t work on The Sabbath, Don’t be jealous of someone else’s material possessions, Honour your father and mother.

 Many Australians I speak to think they have basically kept the Ten Commandments, or at least the subset they nominate, though they will also agree that are not perfect and have made some mistakes. They mostly think that their mistakes are small and unimportant and that God will forgive them and that they will still go to Heaven. If pressed they will say ‘ I haven’t killed anyone’, reducing the Ten Commandments to One.

Are the ‘forgotten commandments’ important ? Is it only required to keep One Commandment? If so, which one ? Can we pick and choose which Commandments we follow ?

I agree that the Ten Commandments provide a basis for ethics and moral law. But I often fail to keep the Ten Commandments.

Should there be any consequences for moral failure ? If so, what should those consequences be ?

The Ten Commandments appear in The Bible in Exodus Chapter 20. Exodus Chapter 20 also spells out the consequences for moral failure: to atone for failure to keep the moral law, Israel was required to bring sheep and other animals and sacrifice them to God.

So The Ten Commandments say that the consequences for moral failure is Death. Not your own death, but someone else’s. Of course if the animal was not bought for sacrifice, the guilt would remain on the law-breaker and his own death would be required by God on Judgement Day.

Question: Can we believe the Ten Commandments and the moral law without believing the consequences for our failure to keep the moral law ? Can we accept the first half of Exodus 20 but reject the second half ? Can we pick and choose from The Ten Commandments ? Can we pick and choose which parts of The Bible to believe ?

Jesus also believed the Ten Commandments. In Mark 10:17-30, Jesus instructed a Rich Young Man to follow the Ten Commandments. The Rich Young Man claimed to have followed all the Commandments, but was still spiritually empty. Jesus questioned The Rich Young Man on his attitude and actions in regard to wealth.

What question would Jesus ask you ? What question would he ask me ?

In the end Jesus told His disciples that it was impossible for a Man to go to Heaven by adherence to the Moral Law.

Jesus said “It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for someone who is rich to enter the kingdom of God.”

 The disciples were even more amazed, and said to each other, “Who then can be saved?”

Jesus looked at them and said, “With man this is impossible, but not with God; all things are possible with God. (Mark 10:25-27)

Question: Jesus says it is impossible for man to satisfy God with our Moral Performance.  Is Jesus correct ?

Why is it impossible for you and me to satisfy God with our moral performance ? Because the standard of God is perfection. Read Genesis 3 where Adam and Eve were expelled from Heaven for committing just one sin. Have you committed one sin ? I have. We all have.

In fact,  Jesus interpereted the Ten Commandments very strictly. Jesus taught that wrong thoughts and attitudes were the same as committing sins physically. One specific example Jesus gave was men looking at women lustfully. I have done this. Jesus says that makes me guilty of adultery. I suspect every man on the planet is thus guilty of adultery. Maybe even you.  By Jesus’s standards (see Matthew 5:28).

Jesus also taught that any man who calls another man ‘A fool’ has committed a sin and is therefore liable for moral consequences, this penalty being death and hell. (Matthew 5:22)  So,  Jesus teaches us that there is not even one person has lived a satisfactory moral life

Question: Should we accept Jesus standard of morality or our own ? Why ?

Jesus also believed in the second half of Exodus 20, the consequences of moral failure i.e. the Death of the One who fails morally. John The Baptist said Jesus is The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world (John 1:29). In other words, John taught that Jesus is the ransom required for mankind to receive forgiveness from God.  Jesus taught the reason for his life was to give his life as a ransom for many.(Matthew 20:28). Jesus taught that all mankind including you and me are guilty of moral failure and face the most extreme consequences.

And that’s where Christmas comes in. God Himself decided to come to Earth as Jesus to live as a man, to overcome all temptations and to completely fulfil the moral law of God.  In this way, Jesus becomes a representative of mankind before God. He suffered death and hell  on our behalf so that we don’t have to.

Jesus has paid your ransom. You now have the choice before God of accepting Jesus as your ransom or choosing to pay the penalty of death and hell yourself.

Its up to you.

You indicated that you do not believe that the death of Jesus on the Cross is a payment for your sins because you do not believe in Human Sacrifice.

Jesus did not teach us to practice Human Sacrifice. Jesus did teach us that the Judicial Penalty for sin is death. He has paid that penalty so that you don’t have to. There is a fallacy believed that Christianity teaches Human Sacrifice. It does not.  But Jesus, Moses, David and Abraham did teach that the Judicial Penalty of death can be paid for by God on behalf of mankind.

Sir, not all religions are the same, even though all of them have some kind of moral law. Let’s examine the four largest religions on Earth:

Hindus say: The Truth is One, but the teachers speak of it in many different ways.

Buddha said: Follow my eight-fold path and you will discover The Truth.

Mohammed said: The Truth has been revealed to me.

Jesus said: I am The Truth

Of the four largest religions on earth, there is only one that says that you can get to the truth by multiple different essentially equal ways. That religion in Hinduism.If someone says that there are many ways to God they are contradicting Buddha, Mohammed and Jesus. Do we really have any right to contradict these teachers ? In particular, who are we to say that we understand their religions better than they themselves do ? Buddha, Mohammed and Jesus all said that there is only one way to heaven, not many.

If we align ourselves with Hinduism saying all religions are basically the same,  do we then do as the Hindus do and worship Ganesh, Shiva and Vishnu ? If not, why not ?

Of these four religions, three say the way to heaven is by works, or our own efforts in adherence to the moral law. Only one says that our own efforts in adherence to the moral law will never take us to Heaven. And that one is Jesus.

Jesus stands alone.

Is Jesus correct ? Is He alone The Way to Heaven ?

I am the way and the truth and the life. 

No one comes to the Father except through me. (Jesus, John 14:6)

 Sir, Thank You so much for allowing me to leave you this short note. I would love to discuss these ideas with you in further detail. Please contact me any time.

Merry Christmas !

 

(Repost For Christmas. Originally here)

In our place we don’t do Santa.

We have informed the children that Christmas is a celebration of Jesus’s birthday and that Santa is a way people have of remembering the very nice man St Nicholas of Patara who would give presents to poor children for Jesus’s birthday because they had no one to give them presents.

Just The Facts

Objectively this is a factually historically sound precis of the identities of the major personages associated with Christmas and far closer to the truth than the western secular culturally approved Christmas story which is that Christmas is a day when the entirely mythical Santa Claus pilots a team of magic reindeer around the planet and distributes presents to children on the basis of good behaviour, completing his global mission in one night assisted by a team of magical elves.

So on a factual basis my family explanation of ‘Why Christmas?’ beats the objectivity index of the major alternative explanation by about 100-NIL.

Even if you think that Jesus Himself is a myth it is nevertheless true that Christmas Day came into being a celebration of Jesus’s birthday. Yes, yes I know, the actual day was appropriated from a pagan midwinter festival but it wasn’t called Christmas then.

Name That Stereotype

Now if you’re a hard core atheist you despise myths of all kinds so you wouldn’t be wanting to be feeding the children’s minds up with Santa nonsense. You’ll be telling them that Christmas (without the deliberate mis-spelling with ‘X’) is a celebration of the birthday of a mythical person called Jesus ’cause that’s factual, but that in your family Christmas is just about whatever you want to do at Christmas.

And if you’re an agnostic you’ll have no objection to Jesus as a putative historical personage or even as God, so you would have at least no objection to be going with the basic facts about ‘Why Christmas?‘, but you might decide to go with the Santa story because its fun for kids to play make-believe.

I guess the ‘Christmas is about Santa’ story would also be adopted to easy-going or less dogmatic atheists like Julia Gillard, Prime Minister Of Australia, who don’t believe in God but who don’t share the relentless atheist insistence on eliminating Jesus from public consciousness associated with, say, Richard Dawkins, and just like to see the kids get entranced in ‘the magic of Christmas’.

And from personal observation it would also apply to the general Australian public for whom neither Jesus nor atheism nor agnosticism registers at any meaningful resonance.

As far those who believe Jesus is God, such as myself, we obviously want to emphasize that Christmas is about Jesus’s birthday. Some Christian families also integrate Santa into their Christmas Family narrative but in my opinion this makes Christmas worse, not better.

Why Santa makes Christmas Worse

When our kids get a Christmas present they know that Mummy and Daddy have bought it for them, not Santa. So this is tangible evidence that M&D love giving them great stuff, and the greatest stuff that kids get, materially speaking, comes on Christmas Day. Pooh-pooh it if you like but gift-giving is a practical demonstration of love. Why should my kids think that Santa loves them more than M&D ? I think that its a positive for the children that they know that M&D bought them the big shiny bike or the Hot Wheels Trick Tracks Mega-Dino Challenge or the Dora The Explorer magnetic toothbrush with built in compass.

Secondly, the kids express their joy for the gift directly back to M&D and it goes like this WOW! THANKS DAD! THAT IS AWESOOOOMMME! Sorry Santa, you don’t deserve that gratitude since you don’t even exist anyway and I’m sure as eggs not letting you have it. So the M&D’s get to express the full volume of their children’s delight at the Christmas gifts, instead of vicariously filtered via Santa.

Third, we as M&D give Christmas presents to our children because we love them, not on the basis of whether or not they have been good. Our children get validated for who they are, not on the basis of their transitory behaviour. Our children know they do not have to earn the love of M&D unlike that fickle impostor Santa whose favour can at any time evaporate like summer mist.

Fourth, the children get facts not fiction. No matter how you slice it, Santa is made up. A truthful explanation of Why Do We Give Presents At Christmas must include some reference to Jesus, even if He is relegated to myth. Face it, Santa entered the Christmas narrative at some point many centuries after Jesus and doubly so the magic reindeer and elves.

Much as many hate it Jesus IS the ORIGINAL reason for the season and the reason why Christmas exists. Here’s a theoretical question your child may ask:

Child: ‘Mummy, Why DO people go around saying ‘Christmas is a time of peace and goodwill to all men’ ?
Incorrect Answer A: Because Christmas is a time when we get together as a family.
Correct Answer B: Its because that’s what the Angels said to the shepherds on Jesus’s birthday.

Quite simply, an integrated understanding of Christmas requires reference to Jesus.

Fifth, for those who are Jesus-friendly, awarding Christmas to Santa robs Jesus of richly deserved recognition. Americans have a thing called Martin Luther King Day. Contrary to current popular preferential meaning, this does not commemorate the day when Santa led a Freedom march on Washington DC to eloquently demand equal rights for African-Americans assisted by a team of magical elves. I think you get what I mean. Even if you think Jesus is just a man or even just a myth, why not let the kids admire and learn from His example ?

Santa Is Not All Bad

Ejecting Santa from Christmas is not without cost. My kids do miss out on the awestruck wonder of waiting for Santa to visit and some really great make-believe. And yes, my kids are almost the only ones at school who don’t think Santa is real, which can make them seem like Alien Life-Forms to the others who have been fed the 100% guaranteed Santa myth. Ironic that, but it doesn’t seem to lead to teasing.

But even without Jesus, Christmas is better without Santa (see reasons one, two and three above). Of course WITH Jesus there is another kind of awestuck wonder which happens to be based in historical truth, but even if you really wish to persist with Jesus is A Myth, at least you can tell tell the myth that is related to the actual origins of Christmas rather than the one that originated with Coca-Cola Inc.

Hindus say: The Truth is One, but the sages speak of it in many different ways.

Buddha said: Follow my eight-fold path and you will discover The Truth.

Mohammed said: The Truth has been revealed to me.

Jesus said: I am The Truth

 

I am the Way and the Truth and the Life.  

No one comes to the Father except through me.

(Jesus, John 14:6)

Acknowledgement – I first saw this schema of Comparative Religion in a book I read when I was in my early 20’s when I was trying to figure out if Jesus Is God. The book was published by an Anglican publishing house but I can’t remember the name of the book or who the authors are.